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How To Build Transit For Metro Areas With Multiple Centers
"The Germans have concluded that a light rail system isn't suited for getting you to a different city, and a commuter train system isn't suited for getting you from one urban neighborhood to another. But the key is linking these systems..while the system is set up to make transfers easy, it's also designed to minimize them..."
"Consider the immediate Frankfurt area: there are half a dozen different agencies operating rail transit. But the passengers don't need to care about that. You can ride light rail in Frankfurt, transfer to the S-Bahn, ride to Mainz, and get on a streetcar for the end of your trip (PDF), all with a single ticket."