Where Rail Transit Works, And Why
"There is so much auto-competitive rail service to Manhattan and Chicagos Loop, for example, that the automobile is a second or even third choice. Never mind that operating and capital costs are far higher than necessary, and that use of competitive solutions would make even more services available. And, of course, there is a dearth of transit service between suburban locations, such that few suburban commuters who own cars use transit... Rail can be successful throughout an urban area where the conditions are right, as they are in Tokyo and Osaka. But Phoenix, Portland, Perth, and Paris are neither Tokyo nor Osaka ... and they never will be."
Thanks to Chris Steins