Integrated Policies Necessary For Sustainability
The European Union PROPOLIS project has concluded that "a 'policy package', rather than individual policies focusing on car use, public transport or land use, is the most effective route to sustainability." Policies that make car travel less attractive are "dependent upon a degree of centralisation in a city." Policies that promote public transport were found to "have minimal effect on car mobility and can also have the disadvantage of promoting urban sprawl." Even land use policies alone do not seem to have much influence on car mobility. The authors conclude that a series of "push and pull" measures are necessary to reduce car dependency.
Thanks to Zvi Leve