Urban Planning Lessons From Cuba
"Since shortly after its 1959 revolution, Cubas variety of socialism has featured both large-scale planning (physical, economic, social) and massive popular participation through active mass organizations and frequent mobilizations. Participatory planning, however, has remained more elusive....On the whole, the Cuban state tends to operate in the advocacy rather than transformative planning paradigmthat is, it acts for the people rather than empowering the people to act for themselves. Many good things have happened as a result: excellent schools; a health care system that is the envy of much of the world; and widespread distribution of benefits like adequate and affordable housing. But there have also been negative results: slum clearance and the dispersal of residents with no regard to the social networks destroyed in the process; universal policies applied regardless of cultural and historical differences; mandated 'color- and gender-blind' equality that doesnt touch the complex roots of racism and sexism."
Thanks to Connie Chung