How the Built Environment Impacts Public Health

New research sheds light on how the brain responds to urban environments and architecture.

June 18, 2021, 6:00 AM PDT

By Diana Ionescu @aworkoffiction


New York City

Clari Massimiliano / Shutterstock

The built environment, writes Jared Green for the American Society of Landscape Architects, "is directly linked with happiness and well-being, and too often urban environments fail to put people at ease." Justin Hollander, professor of urban and environmental planning and policy at Tufts University, says "we are deeply influenced by our surroundings" thanks to our "automatic (non-conscious) response to shapes, patterns, and colors."

"As we now understand, humans are drawn to landscapes that provide a refuge, a sense of safety, and prospect, a view of the entire scene, which supports that sense of safety. Storytelling is also important in landscapes, whether they are gardens, parks, or streetscapes. Humans are drawn to landscapes that provide clear sequences." In his experiments, Hollander uses eye-tracking technology to quantify the effects of various environments on the human brain. "Hollander said eye tracking software shows that New Urbanist-style communities, which have homes closer to the street; traditional architecture that mimic faces; and sidewalks all “encourage walking.” If a pedestrian can see a sequence — one, two, three, four homes in a row — they are more likely to want to walk down that row."

"According to Nikos Salingaros, professor of mathematics, architecture, urban, and complexity theory at the University of Texas at San Antonio, architects today are wed to a style rooted in 1920s Germany — the Bauhaus — that creates an unhealthy built environment" composed of "stylistically irrelevant glass boxes" that create cognitive stress in the human brain. Salingaros suggests that healthy environments are those that privilege human connectivity and the human scale–"intimate networks that are comfortable to humans."  Architect and author Ann Sussman also suggests solutions for mitigating the effects of existing forms. In Somerville, Massachusetts, "the negative impact of the blank concrete wall of a parking garage was mitigated through public art and greenery." 

Because "environments that are easier to fixate on cause less cognitive stress" and have a powerful impact on public health, argues Hollander, "planners, landscape architects, and architects have a responsibility to design a built environment that increases well-being."

Monday, June 7, 2021 in American Society Of Landscape Architects

Street-level view of sharrow symbol on asphalt with parked car in background

How Sharrows Became Cycling’s Most Hated Symbol

Originally designed as a low-cost way to encourage safer road sharing between bikes and cars, the sharrow has become a symbol of the lack of commitment to protected bike infrastructure in many cities.

August 2, 2022 - Denverite

A image of the World's Columbian Exposition overlayed with a picture of Keanu Reeves in the rain from the movie Point Break.

Keanu Reeves Set to Play Daniel Burnham in ‘The Devil in the White City’

Planning is going to get a new level of star power as a limited series adaptation of The Devil in the White City gets ready for television screens in 2024.

August 8, 2022 - Reel Chicago

View from middle of street in downtown Telluride, Colorado with mountains in background

Marrying Urban Identity and Economic Prosperity

A new book posits that truly successful communities have a strong economic base and a firmly rooted sense of place.

August 5, 2022 - Governing

Rendering of downtown Milwaukee sports stadium with soccer field

Sports Stadiums Bring Few Economic Benefits

While their developers often tout jobs and local economic development as benefits of major stadium projects, research shows these venues often make little impact on local economies.

16 minutes ago - Urban Milwaukee

Dallas Freeways

A How-To for ‘Freeway Fighters’

Ten recommendations for effective freeway removal advocacy.

1 hour ago - Strong Towns

Rendering of elevated rail ine

Miami Rapid Transit Project Moves Forward

The county completed the draft environmental impact study for a monorail and people mover planned as part of its rapid transit system.

2 hours ago - The Next Miami

Urban Design for Planners 1: Software Tools

This six-course series explores essential urban design concepts using open source software and equips planners with the tools they need to participate fully in the urban design process.

Hand Drawing Master Plans

This course aims to provide an introduction into Urban Design Sketching focused on how to hand draw master plans using a mix of colored markers.