The Fair Housing Act (FHA) imposes liability upon landlords and governments whose policies have a discriminatory effect against racial minorities. However, the courts have interpreted this doctrine narrowly.
The brain has a complex, ancient relationship with place. Mental maps are the manifestation of our brains' perception of place and wayfinding. These maps can have profound impacts on how residents appreciate, and improve, their neighborhoods.
In the old days, every taxi driver in New York City was required to prove at least a basic working knowledge of the city's streets and landmarks. A new licensing exam does away with geography, assuming that taxis will rely on GPS.