It was clear to the City of Toronto that engaging less confident cyclists that make up 60% of the population, yet seldom come to community meetings, might be the key to dramatic mode shifts in the city. Here's how it happened.
In the 1970s and 80s, bottom-up slum upgrading schemes inspired by the ideas of British-born architect James F.C. Turner benefited tens of thousands of residents of Mumbai. Current policies incentivize top-down redevelopment, harming slum dwellers.
According to Arianna McBride, the recipe for good community design must effectively balance community wisdom with expert knowledge. She shares three ways that planners can facilitate the type of participation that leads to great places.