Klein begins his argument about the need to rethink the paradigms of planning by citing the example of the disruptive possibility of bike share: "When we think about transit-oriented development, we typically think of rail stations. We know that in certain environments with density levels of X and height limits of Y, we can predict levels of investment of Z. But how would that equation hold up if Transit Oriented Development centered on a bike-share station, for instance, rather than rail stop?"
Autonomous vehicles and transportation network companies like Uber and Lyft could also disrupt traditional planning paradigms, because of their lack of a fixed node.
The evolution of the transportation system, to a larger, multi-mode, technology-enabled system will require bold action, according to Klein. "If we operate a bit fearlessly—and the public policy people work together with private industry and shape the rollout of technologies and services, as we have with bike-share in D.C. and Chicago—I think we will have a more ideal, equitable, and useful outcome for metro-area populations. The less we worry, and the more we implement these systems in different environments and at different levels of density, people will use them as they need them and show us the patterns....Then, cities can adjust offerings and move stations to fulfill constituent demand."