Daphne A. Kenyon and Adam H. Langley, authors of the study, say that at least 117 municipalities have tried out a PILOT program since 2000.
Do PILOTs work? Kenyon and Langley conclude that yes, but it depends:
PILOTs "...have the potential to provide crucial revenue for municipalities that have a significant share of total property value owned by tax-exempt nonprofits, both as a stop-gap in the current municipal fiscal crisis and in the future. However, PILOTs rarely account for more than 1 or 2 percent of municipal revenues, so expecting these payments to eliminate local government deficits is unrealistic."