A decade or so ago, after reading some of Jane Jacobs' work, I became aware of the distinction between mixed-use and single-use neighborhoods. In those days, I imagined that in a well-functioning urban neighborhood, every non-polluting use would be mixed together, and the lion of housing would lay down with the lamb of commerce.But for the past few months, I have lived just six blocks from Jacobs' Toronto house, in the Annex neighborhood. And in the Annex, I have learned that the distinction between sprawl and walkable urbanism is a little more subtle than the bumper-sticker phrase "mixed-use" suggests.
In the Annex, as in conventional sprawl development (CSD), most businesses are on a few major streets, especially Bloor Street West between Spadina and Bathurst. Although Bloor has a few residences above shops, Bloor is primarily a commercial street.
So how is Bloor different from San Jose Boulevard (the sprawling commercial street of my former neighborhood in Jacksonville)? Bloor's distinction rests less on diversity of uses than on street design.
San Jose has a wide variety of commercial activities near some residential blocks, but is as wide as eight lanes in some spots- too wide to be comfortable for pedestrians. Bloor is only four lanes wide, and is thus relatively easy for pedestrians to cross. And on Bloor, nearly every commercial building immediately adjoins the sidewalk, rather than being set back from the sidewalk by yards of parking.
As a result, pedestrians can easily access shops, rather than dodging cars on the way to their destination. And because the nearby residential blocks are part of a grid system, neighborhood residents don't have to hop from cul-de-sac to cul-de-sac to reach Bloor's businesses. In sum, Bloor is pedestrian-friendly less because of mixed use than because of pedestrian-friendly street design and compact development.
The Annex's residential streets, like those in my old neighborhood in Jacksonville, are at least somewhat single-use: streets with large apartment complexes (St. George and Spadina near Bloor) have very few single-family structures, and other residential streets are dominated by houses and duplexes. So in a sense, the Annex's streets are as single-use as a typical suburban subdivision- both types of streets are dominated by one type of structure.
But there are two significant differences between an Annex street and a CSD street. First, some of the Annex houses have been cut up into small apartments; thus, on an Annex street, single-family houses and duplexes often coexist with very small apartment houses (though not with high-rises). More importantly, the Annex's residential streets are more compact than their equivalents in sprawl subdivisions: houses are closer together, and are often duplexes. Thus, more people live on an Annex street than live on a typical residential street in Jacksonville, which means that the Annex has the density to support good public transit.
In sum, what makes the Annex walkable is not so much that every street mixes uses; rather, it is that the commercial streets are easily accessible from the residential ones, thus creating a mixed-use neighborhood.
NOTE: To see some examples of what I am talking about, go to Google Street View at maps.google.com. To see Bloor, go to anyplace between 350 and 600 Bloor Street West in Toronto. To see a typical residential street, go to Albany Avenue, just north of Bloor (Jane Jacobs lived on this stretch of Albany). To see an apartment-oriented street, go to St. George St. or Spadina Road just north of Bloor. To see my old sprawl street in Jacksonville, go to 10000 San Jose Boulevard in Jacksonville.