Defensive Urbanism

Bus bench with "armrests" to prevent lying down

What Is Defensive Urbanism?

If you’ve ever noticed a public bench split in half by a metal bar, or a series of seemingly ornamental boulders blocking the sidewalk under a high-rise overhang, you’ve seen what is often described as defensive urbanism or ‘hostile architecture.’

December 12, 2022 - Diana Ionescu

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How Bike Racks Are Weaponized To Displace Unhoused People

In Portland, a set of mysteriously installed bike racks is prompting questions about their true purpose.

June 7, 2022 - The Portland Mercury

Bus bench with "armrests" to prevent lying down

How ‘Hostile Design’ Creates Unwelcoming Spaces

‘Defensive urbanism’ interventions explicitly seek to repel certain, often vulnerable, social groups from public spaces.

June 2, 2022 - Canadian Architect

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