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During the nightly blackouts designed to protect London from aerial attack during World War II, authorities used white paint as a cheap tool for making the city navigable in the darkness. Could London offer lessons for building resilient cities?
Jan 7, 2014   Gizmodo
Fanis Grammenos returns to the subject of urban form, this time to interrogate the connection between legibility and navigation. In this essay, he considers whether an orthogonal city layout aligned with the cardinal directions is a necessary condition for easy city navigation. Exclusive
Aug 14, 2012  By Fanis Grammenos
Jarett Walker finds out how many people can recognize north in the subway. The survey is used to explain the distinction between narrative and spatial navigation, which appear to be the two predominant forms of human navigation.
Jun 24, 2010   Human Transit