In the past, parking problems were resolved by building new garages and countless parking spaces. With lack of economic and land use resources, the trend is moving towards using strategic demand-responsive pricing modules to make the most out of existing parking supplies.
"Supported by new research, notably the book, The High Cost of Free Parking by Donald Shoup, FAICP (updated and issued in paperback in 2011), and the actual results of early adopters, cities large and small have learned that smarter parking management can be a valuable tool for revitalizing downtown districts, improving the customer experience, and reducing both traffic and parking congestion."
Communities like Redwood City, Oak Park, San Francisco, Chicago, Ventura, and Washington, D.C. are all in various stages of successfully implementing these new smart parking strategies. Other cities can follow by example with lessons learned from the case studies explored by Nelson and Schrieber.