This is especially true in Cleveland, where a series of new projects are emphasizing the importance of place.
"Whether it can help reverse the city's decline and attract visitors and new residents after decades of job and population loss is an open question. But it's clear that among the many forces shaping the projects, from a new burst of civic energy to the surging demand for rental apartments in the city, the fear of a terrorist attack is in most cases a distant concern.
"We're not trying to create bunkers, we're trying to create places that open up to the outside," said developer Ari Maron of MRN Ltd.
Major projects, from the renovation of the Cleveland Museum of Art to the city's new hospitals, convention center and medical mart, emphasize large civic spaces, transparency, ease of access and the free flow of ideas."