The Center for an Urban Future report shows that, increasingly, New Yorkers aren't commuting into Manhattan:
"In the Bronx, for example, between 1990 and 2008 the number of commuters traveling to Manhattan grew by 12 percent. The number of commuters going to work inside the Bronx, in contrast, grew by 25 percent and the number traveling to neighboring Queens or Westchester increased by 38 percent. In fact, the Bronx was the only borough to add jobs during the great recession. The pattern, which repeats itself in Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island, is clear: commuting no longer means traveling into Manhattan."
The result? A marked increase in bus ridership and increased traffic congestion.
Thanks to Noah Kazis