Understanding the Impact of 9-11 On Our Cities

One year after the tragic events of Sept. 11, 2001, planning and development issues are at the forefront of the national debate. This special section presents the most-read news articles about 9-11 from our news archives. Also included are nine thought-provoking PLANetizen Op-Eds. Together, these writings address the major issues that have emerged in the last year and analyze the impact of 9-11 on our cities.

Updated: 01:00 pm PDT, Sep 19, 2002

PLANetizen Op-Eds

The
Death Of An Icon

The World Trade Center towers were an icon
of the most powerful city in the world. Was it a mistake to build
these grand towers? No. Architecture captures the strength and
power of the American idea.


     Sep 13, 2001

The
End Of Tall Buildings


We are convinced that the age of skyscrapers
is at an end. It must now be considered an experimental building
typology that has failed. We predict that no new megatowers will
be built, and existing ones are destined to be dismantled.


     Sep 17, 2001

New
Urbanist Proposals For Rebuilding The World Trade Center


Members of an Internet-based discussion
group promoting New Urbanism offer several new urbanist proposals
for redeveloping the site of the World Trade Center.


      Sep 24, 2001

Fortifying
America: Planning for Fear


As professional planners we have to take
a new ethical stand. Gated and walled residential complexes will
be even more popular among residential real estate developers.
We have to ask, what kind of security will protect all of us and
what kind will just divide some of us?

      Oct 02, 2001

Low
Densities Are No Answer To The Threat Of Terrorism


The sprawling 1950's postwar urban pattern,
once believed to provide a measure of security in the atomic age,
has made us extremely vulnerable in an age of international terrorism.


      Oct 23, 2001

The
Future Of Cities: The Absurdity of Modernism


The godfather of New Urbanism offers his
perspective on the future of cities: The most beautiful cities
which survive in the world today have all been conceived with
buildings of between two and five floors -- the era of the utilitarian
skyscraper is at an end.


      Nov 05, 2001

Let
Cities Be Cities


Scattered development does not offer more
security. Decentralizing the population and businesses of our
great cities would be a long and expensive proposition, and one
likely to fail.

      Nov 26, 2001

The
End Of The Modern World


The Twentieth Century ushered in a historic
era of optimism for the rational "modern" future. History may
record that September 11 ended the modernist dream for cities.
But already new visions are emerging for a wiser, more hopeful
future.


      Jan 09, 2002

A
Missed Learning Opportunity


The architectural implications of the September
11, 2001 tragedy; Have planners and architects overlooked the
moral lesson to practice humane urban design?


      Sep 16, 2002

News Archive

Why
The World Trade Center Towers Collapsed


A professor of Civil Engineering at UC
Berkeley presents his analysis of why the World Trade Center towers
collapsed after being hit by jetliners. This article also provides
an overview of the history and structural system of the towers.

      Sep 13, 2001 - Salon

The
Impact Of Terrorism On Urban Form


What are the structural and arhictectural
implications of the World Trade Center attack on the future of
the world's cities?


      Sep 17, 2001 - Guardian
Unlimited, UK

Should
WTC Towers Be Rebuilt? -- Architects' Opinions


Philip Johnson, Robert A.M. Stern, Peter
Eisenman, Richard Meier and others express their thoughts on whether
the World Trade Center towers should be rebuilt.


      Sep 18, 2001 - The
New York Times

Artists
Design Memorial To Fill Gap In New York's Skyline

Artists Paul Myoda and Julian LaVerdiere
have conceived a design for a memorial to fill the void left in
New York's skyline.


      Sep 19, 2001 - The
New York Times

Towers
Were A Target And Should Not Be Rebuilt


The author who wrote a history of the World
Trade Center says the towers should not be rebuilt.

      Sep 19, 2001 - CNN

Sprawl
Is One Way To Fight Terrorism


In the age of terrorism, sprawl is a natural
alternative to dense urban targets.


      Sep 24, 2001 - Wall
St. Journal

WTC
Towers: Mapping Ground Zero


Global Positioning technology helps create
a three-dimensional picture of the devastation at the site of
the World Trade Center attacks.


      Sep 25, 2001 - The
New York Times

Building
Codes Helped Save Lives At WTC

The World Trade Center buildings -- designed
to comply with building codes -- included architectural and structural
elements that enabled occupants to evacuate.


      Sep 26, 2001 - Washington
Post

World
Trade Center Towers: A Structural Autopsy


From the wreckage of the World Trade Center
emerge new details of the cause of the towers' collapse.

      Oct 08, 2001 - Wired

Terror-proofing
Skyscrapers: Experts Brainstorm


Architects and engineers meet in Chicago
at a conference to discuss how skyscrapers can be protected from
terrorism.


      Oct 19, 2001 - Chicago
Tribune

Cities
Must Spread Out


Joel Kotkin argues that in this post-terrorism
era, cities must change if they are to survive.


      Oct 25, 2001 - Wall
St. Journal

Engineers
Uncover New Details Of WTC Collapse

Structural engineers debate over how the
World Trade Center towers collapsed.


      Nov 13, 2001 - The
New York Times

Should
Patriotism Be Measured In Miles Per Gallon?


Is driving a gas-guzzling SUV unpatriotic?
Many Americans don't believe there is a relationship between global

politics and U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

      Nov 30, 2001 - The
New York Times

Urban
Sprawl Vs. Homeland Security


Urban sprawl almost certainly poses a far
greater threat to your health than bioterrorism.


      Jan 09, 2002 - Michigan
Land Use Institute

Why
Bin Laden Chose WTC


Laurie Kerr suggests that Osama Bin Laden
may have had a more personal and architectural reason for attacking
the World Trade Center towers.


      Jan 16, 2002 - Slate

Seven
Principles For Rebuilding Downtown

A coalition of architecture, planning,
and design organizations has prepared a report describing seven
principles for rebuilding Lower Manhattan.


      Jan 21, 2002 - New
York New Visions

A
Medieval Model: The Future Of Urban Planning?


Steven Johnson discusses the challenges
urban planners face in creating the cities of the future that
offer protection from terrorism.

      Feb 04, 2002 - Wired

Is
Smart Growth An Anti-Terrorism Tool?


Speakers at the New Partners for Smart
Growth conference say smart growth can improve security.


      Feb 28, 2002 - San
Diego Union-Tribune

National
Building Codes May Change After 9-11 Attacks


The collapse of the World Trade Center
towers may bring about changes in the national building standards
and codes.


      Mar 07, 2001 - Washington
Post

Architects
Developing Security Measures For New Buildings

Designers of new buildings are employing
a variety of security measures to make structures more resistent
to terrorist attacks.


      Mar 13, 2002 - The
New York Times

The
End Of The Master Builder?


The age of the "master builder" has been
replaced with a new "planning democracy."

      Apr 15, 2002 -
The New York Times

Urban
Design And Security Plan


A draft of the much-anticipated Urban Design
and Security plan outlines planning techniques to protect national
landmarks and government buildings from terror.


      Jul 08, 2002 -
Boston Globe

In
Pictures: Ground Zero Plans


The six plans for the World Trade Center
site are published including models, site plans, skyline elevations,
animations.


      Jul 17, 2002 - Lower
Manhattan Development Corporation

Keeping
Businesses In Downtown

Incentive won't keep businesses in downtown.
Quality of life and transportation are more important.


      Jul 26, 2002 - The
New York Times

Maya
Lin Discusses Ground Zero


Maya Lin, designer of the Vietnam Memorial,
reluctantly offer her thoughts about Ground Zero.

      Jul 29, 2002 -
The New Yorker

Anti-terror
Urban Design


Architects and planners are figuring out
how to design terror-reistant structures without creating a fortress
mentality.


      Jul 30, 2002 -
Boston Globe

NYC
To Change Codes For Skyscrapers


New York City's sweeping plan to change
building codes for high-rises is an indication of how the Sept
11th attacks could transform the nation's skyscrapers.


      Aug 06, 2002 - The
New York Times

Security
Concerns Push Firms To Suburbs

This is the last in a series of occasional
articles on security, buildings, and cities after 9/11 by Boston
Globe urban planning writer Anthony Flint.


      Aug 19, 2002 -
Boston Globe

A
Daring Vision For New York


In the last three decades New York has
seen few major public planning projects. To maintain its position
as a global city, New York needs to "think big.".

      Sep 05, 2002 -
The New York Times

A
Real Organic Solution For Ground Zero


The efforts rebuild the site of the World
Trade Center are a 'fiasco' but the area is starting to heal itself
without the benefit
of planning strategies.

      Sep 07, 2002 - Guardian
Unlimited, UK

The
'Epic Story' Of The Twin Towers


A fascinating biography of the ambitious
Twin Towers and how the innovations that made the towers possible
played a role in their fall. (All 7 chapters available online.)


      Sep 09, 2002 - The
New York Times

Review
Of Books About Ground Zero


The World Trade Centers will be more revered
in death, than in life. Urban design writer John King reviews
three books about these icons.


      Sep 09, 2002 - San
Francisco Chronicle

Team
Of All-Star Architects Reimagines New York

Richard Meier, Steven Holl, Peter Eisenman,
Charles Gwathmey, Guy Nordenson, Maya Lin, and others, dissatisfied
with the official planning process to rebuild the site of the
World Trade Center, form a design team to reimagine Lower Manhattan.


      Sep 09, 2002 -
The New York Times

The
'Epic Story' Of The Twin Towers


A fascinating biography of the ambitious
Twin Towers and how the innovations that made the towers possible
played a role in their fall. (All 7 chapters available online.)

      Sep 09, 2002 -
The New York Times

Rebuilding
Lower Manhattan: Architects 'Think Big'


Who are the high-profile architects
involved in the project to create an alternate vision for Lower
Manhattan?

      Sep 09, 2002 -
The New York Times

Around The Web

Remembering 9/11

ABC News

September
11: One Year On


BBC News

September
11: One Year Later


Christian Science Monitor

America
Remembers


CNN

Sept
11: The Day America Changed


Fox News

Rebuilding
Manhattan Without Skyscrapers


Katarxis

Voices
Of Reflection


National Public Radio

A
Nation Challenged


The New York Times

America Rebuilds:
A Year At Ground Zero


PBS

September
11: A Nation Remembers


Time Magazine

One
Year Later


Washington Post

9/11 Special Coverage

Yahoo News

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